COECSA, Journal, Ophthalmology
Prevalence and pattern of manifest strabismus in paediatric patients at CCBRT, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
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Njambi L, Rita O, Kazim D, Sonia V. (2023). Prevalence and pattern of manifest strabismus in paediatric patients at CCBRT, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, 15(01). Retrieved from


Background: Awareness on the magnitude of strabismus burden is crucial in preventing development of
amblyopia, restore binocularity, aid in development of stereopsis and improve treatments outcomes.
Objective: To determine the prevalence, and pattern of strabismus presentation in paediatric patients at
Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania (CCBRT).

Retrospective descriptive hospital based study.

Children aged 16 years and below presenting with strabismus at CCBRT between January 1, 2014 and
June 30, 2014.

All strabismus coded files of patients below 16 years were identified from medical records. The data
collected included patients’ demographic data; age at onset of strabismus; visual acuity; characteristics of the
deviation; refractive status; binocular functions and amblyopia assessment; and relevant ocular and systemic

The prevalence of strabismus was 5.9%. Males were 49.1% and females 50.9%. Family history was
present in 3.3% of the patients. Most of the patients (61.8%) were below five years; average 4.6 years. A third of
the patients (32.5%) presented within one year of onset of strabismus; average duration 25.7 months. Systemic
and ocular co morbidities were present in 17.9% and 46.2% of the patients respectively. About half (47.9%),
had normal vision. Esotropia was the commonest deviation ( 63.3%); exotropia, 24% and hypertopia 2.8% . In
76.9% the strabismus was unilateral and alternating in 22.6%. Most of the deviations (42.9%) were between
30-50 prism dioptres. Hyperopia was in 51.7%; myopia in 14.4% and astigmatism 11.6% of the eyes. Amblyopia
was noted in 25.9% of the patients. Binocular single vision assessment was done in 14.1%; 62.5% had a negative

The prevalence of strabismus in this study was high at 5.9%. Esotropia was the commonest

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