COECSA, Journal, Ophthalmology
Pattern of posterior segment injuries after ocular trauma at the vitreoretinal unit at Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya
Download PDF Article


Ocular Trauma
Posterior segment injury in East Africa


How to Cite

Nguyo GN, Jafferji S , Gachago M, Njuguna M. (2023). Pattern of posterior segment injuries after ocular trauma at the vitreoretinal unit at Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya. The Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, 15(01). Retrieved from


Background: Ocular trauma is a significant cause of monocular blindness worldwide. Eye injuries involving the
posterior segment have been a matter of concern particularly due to the related poor visual outcome. These injuries
require specialised intervention and follow up care to achieve best possible visual outcome.

Objective: This study aimed to give baseline information on pattern of posterior segment eye injuries in the East Africa
set up.

Design: Retrospective case series of eye injuries involving posterior segment treated at Kikuyu Eye Unit, a tertiary
referral eye hospital in Kenya between 1st January 2010 and 31st December 2014.
Results: One hundred and six eyes of 102 patients were reviewed, including 25 children. Seventy three patients (71.6%)
were male and majority were in the 31-40 years age group. The most known circumstance of injury was road traffic
accident in 9 (8.8%) patients. Metal was the most common agent causing these injuries in 15 (14.7%) eyes. Seventy nine
eyes (74.5%) had closed globe injuries. Retinal detachment and vitreous haemorrhage were the most common findings,
at 49 (46.2%) and 47 (44.3%) eyes respectively. Eighty nine eyes (84.0%) were blind at initial review with presenting
vision acuity <3/60.

Conclusion: Ocular injuries involving the posterior segment were most common in young males. Closed globe injuries
were the most common type of injuries (75%). Most eyes were blind at presentation indicating the severity of these
injuries and need for specialised intervention.

Download PDF Article

References -eye trauma. Available at: bestpractice. Last

accessed 19/01/2017.

Kuhn F, Morris R, Witherspoon C, Mester V. The

Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology system

(BETT). J Fr Ophthalmol. 2004; 27(2):206–210.

Wesson H, Bachani A, Wekesa J, et al. Assessing

trauma care at the district and provincial hospital

levels: a case study of hospitals in Kenya. Injury.

; 44 (Suppl 4):S75–80.

National Strategic Plan for Eye Health and Blindness

Prevention 2012 to 2018. p30.

Soliman MM, Macky TA. Pattern of ocular trauma

in Egypt. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;


Omolase CO, Omolade EO, Ogunleye OT, et al. Pattern

of ocular injuries in Owo, Nigeria. J Ophthalmic Vis

Res. 2011; 6(2):114–118.

Kuhn Ferenc. Ocular Traumatology. 1st ed. Springer.


Erdurman FC, Sobaci G, Acikel CH, et al. Anatomical

and functional outcomes in contusion injuries of

posterior segment. Eye Lond Engl. 2011; 25(8):


Warrasak S, Euswas A, Hongsakorn S. Posterior

segment trauma: types of injuries result of vitreoretinal

surgery and prophylactic broad encircling

scleral buckle. J Med Ass Thai. 2005; 88(12):


Kakembo A, Kollmann MH, Adala HS. Ocular

injuries in Africa. Soc Sci Med. 1983; 17(22):


Murithi I, Gichuhi S, Njuguna MW. Ocular injuries in

children. East Afr Med J. 2008; 85(1):39-45.

Matthews GP, Das A, Brown S. Visual outcome and

ocular survival in patients with retinal detachments

secondary to open- or closed-globe injuries.

Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1998; 29(1):48–54.

Globocnik Petrovic M, Lumi X, Drnovsek Olup B.

Prognostic factors in open eye injury managed with

vitrectomy: retrospective study. Croat Med J. 2004;


Unver YB, Acar N, Kapran Z, Altan T. Prognostic

factors in severely traumatized eyes with posterior

segment involvement. Ulus Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi

Derg. Turk J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2009; 15(3): 271–276.

Brinton GS, Aaberg TM, Reeser FH, et al. Surgical

results in ocular trauma involving the posterior

segment. Am J Ophthalmol. 1982; 93(3):271–278.

Rouberol F, Denis P, Romanet JP, Chiquet C.

Comparative study of 50 early- or late-onset retinal

detachments after open or closed globe injury. Retina.

; 31(6):1143–49.

Sarrazin L, Averbukh E, Halpert M, et al. Traumatic

paediatric retinal detachment: a comparison between

open and closed globe injuries. Am J Ophthalmol.

; 137(6):1042–49.

Callegan MC, Engelbert M, Parke DW, Jett BD,

Gilmore MS. Bacterial endophthalmitis: Epidemiology,

therapeutics, and bacterium-host interactions. Clin

Microbiol Rev. 2002; 15(1):111–124.

Yang C-S, Lu C-K, Lee F-L, et al. Treatment and

outcome of traumatic endophthalmitis in open

globe injury with retained intraocular foreign body.

Ophthalmol J Int Ophtalmol Int J Ophthalmol Z Für

Augenheilkd. 2010; 224(2):79–85. .

Andreoli CM, Andreoli MT, Kloek CE, et al. Low

rate of endophthalmitis in a large series of open globe

injuries. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009; 147(4):601–608.e2.

Abu el -Asrar AM, al-Amro SA, al-Mosallam AA, al-

Obeidan S. Post-traumatic endophthalmitis: causative

organisms and visual outcome. Eur J Ophthalmol.

; 9(1):21–31.


Download data is not yet available.