COECSA, Journal, Ophthalmology
Review of ocular trauma in Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale, Ghana
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Ocular Trauma
Referral Pattern
Visual Outcome

How to Cite

Bonsaana GB, Nyenze EM, Ilako DR, Wanye S. (2023). Review of ocular trauma in Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale, Ghana. The Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, 15(01). Retrieved from


Objective: To establish the epidemiologic characteristics, referral pattern, interventions, visual outcomes and complications resulting in visual impairment/blindness among ocular trauma patients in Tamale Teaching Hospital (TTH) Eye Clinic, Tamale, Ghana.

Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective hospital-based case series in which all new patients of all ages with various eye conditions from 1st January to 31st December 2010 were reviewed from the outpatient/inpatient record books and the sex and age recorded. The files/ folders of patients with ocular trauma were selected and retrieved. The epidemiological characteristics, referral pattern, interventions, visual outcomes and complications resulting in visual impairment/blindness among ocular trauma patients were analysed.

Results: A total of 2,027 records of new patients with various eye conditions were retrieved. Three hundred and sixty one (377 eyes) new ocular trauma patients’ files/ folders were analyzed. The Male: Female ratio was 1:1.1 (p=0.09) for all new patients with various eye conditions whilst it was 1.8:1 (p<0.01) for new ocular trauma patients. Ocular trauma patients were younger than general patients with 20 – 29 years age group having most new patients (27.4%) compared with the over 49 years age group for other new cases (23.4%). Approximately 68.4% of the ocular trauma patients were seen at TTH without a referral. Conjunctival lesions were the commonest finding affecting 124(32.9%) of the ocular trauma patients. The majority of patients 88.1% sustained closed globe trauma, 8.3% had adnexal trauma whilst 3.6% had open globe trauma. The commonest intervention rendered was medical treatment alone to 64.4% of the patients. By the WHO classification, majority 67.4% of traumatized eyes had normal vision, 13.9% were visually impaired and 18.7% were blind. Thus, 110 (32.6%) were visually impaired/ blind in the traumatized eye. The commonest complications resulting in visual impairment/ blindness were corneal opacities/ scars in 33(30.0%) cases.

Conclusion: Majority of ocular trauma patients presented with minor injuries which healed without complications. However, ocular trauma was a major cause of monocular blindness and visual impairment. Ocular trauma also tended to affect a younger age group and especially males compared to other eye diseases.

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