COECSA, Journal, Ophthalmology
Sub-specialization; Is it the way to go?



How to Cite

PC, K. . (2020). Sub-specialization; Is it the way to go?. The Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, 18(1). Retrieved from





Schulze Schwering M, Batumba HN. Resident

training in ophthalmology: Can the German

system learn from the Malawian one? Klin Monbl

Augenheilkd. 2013; 230 (1):72-75.

Cassel CK, Reuben DB. Specialization,

subspecialization and subsubspecialization in

internal medicine. N Engl J Med. 2011; 364:


Ashkan K, Guy N, Norris J. Sub-specialization in

neurosurgery: Perspective from a small specialty.

Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2003; 85:149–153.

Chen C, Buch E, Wassermann T, Frehywot S, et

al. Survey of sub-Saharan African medical schools.

Hum Resour Health. 2012; 10:4.

Magoha GA, Ngumi ZW. Training of surgeons

in Kenya at the University of Nairobi teaching

hospital. East Afr Med J. 1999; 76(8):462-464.

Foster A. Ophthalmology in Tanzania. Arch

Ophthalmol. 1989; 107(11): 1688-1690.

Dovlo D. Using mid-level cadres as substitute

for internationally mobile health professionals in

Africa. A desk review. Hum Resour Health. 2004;


Muula AS. Case for clinical officers and medical

assistants in Malawi. Croat Med J. 2009; 50(1):


Schönfeld CL, Kollmann M, Nyaga P, Onyango

O, Klauss V, Kampik A. 11 Years of Experience in

vitreo-retinal surgery training in Nairobi, Kenya,

from 2000 to 2010. Can J Ophthalmol. 2013;


IAPB AFRICA. Human resources for eye health

strategic plan 2014-2023

Taylor HR. Eye health in the future: What are the

challenges for the next twenty years? Community

Eye Health. 2008; 21(67):48-49.

Bowman RJC, Kirupananthan S. How to manage

a patient with glaucoma in Africa. Community Eye

Health. 2006; 19(59):38-39.

Gogate P, Kalua K, Courtright P. Blindness in

childhood in developing countries: time for a

reassessment? PLoS Med. 2009; 6(12):e1000177.

Agarwal PK, Bowman R, Courtright P. Child eye

health tertiary facilities in Africa. J AAPOS.

; 14(3):263-266.

Nentwich MM, Schaller UC, Klauss V. Reasons

reported by African ophthalmologists for staying

in Africa and for considering m


Download data is not yet available.